Wednesday, January 9, 2013

Types of cancer

There are various types of cancer but some are as follows

PROSTATE CANCER 

Prostate cancer is currently one of the most common diseases in humans, is constituted as an adenocarcinoma because it affects the glands that are responsible for secretion and the occurrence of the disease is strongly linked to the behavior of hormones, genes and a strong increase of PSA, a prostate-specific antigen. incidence of prostate cancer may be related to familiarity, to changes in hormone levels and the type of diet that follows the patient, adenocarcinoma of the prostate occurs mainly in western countries, where get plenty of protein and fat animals. Symptoms of this particular tumor are very difficult to recognize, the first stage of the disease affects in fact the outermost part of the prostate and the initial effects not affecting therefore the urinary tract; often, however, we noticed the disease only when it involves other organs through widespread metastases while today it is easily seen through a pre-PSA levels with simple blood tests. treatments that can be applied for the treatment of prostate cancer are of various kinds: it is possible to use to surgery, in patients who have good health, this therapy is very effective and greatly improves the life expectancy of the patient, radiation therapy, which is used especially in the early stages or phases of localized disease, finally, can be brought on hormonal treatment, this therapy is used in patients who can not be operated, or in those in which the disease is too widespread, this last type of treatment is used to delay the progression of the disease. 



LUNG CANCER 

The lung cancer is one of the pathologies most striking men and women, can be divided into two main forms: small cell tumors and non-small cell cancers, this type of tumor originates mainly in the bronchi but subsequent metastases can reach other organs of the body such as bones, brain and adrenal glands . Factors that may lead to the development of lung cancer can be varied and of a different kind: the smoke of cigarettes, pipe tobacco, exposure to smog and pollution, the presence on the premises in which they live and work in radon, certain diseases of the lungs and a previous cancer formation in the lung. Principal symptoms that can lead to the diagnosis of lung cancer are persistent cough, difficulty in breathing, strong weight loss, fatigue and the occurrence of bronchitis and pneumonia. doctor After initial investigations that lead to specific physical conditions, may make its own assessment in various ways, the patient may in fact be subjected to a bronchoscopy, which involves placing a thin tube through the mouth or nose to the bronchi, the ' agosapirazione, which involves the insertion of a needle into the patient's chest to remove some cells from the tumor and analyze them, of a thoracentesis, which provides for the aspiration of a part of the pleural fluid and finally a thoracotomy, which is constituted as a true and own surgery. treatments for the treatment of this type of cancer include the use of surgery, with the consequent removal of the tumor formation, Chemotherapy, with the use of medicinal acts to destroy the diseased cells, radiotherapy that, through radiation destroys the targeted cancer cells, and finally the photodynamic therapy that involves the use of a chemical element that is injected into the blood creeps into the diseased cells and allows the following identification and elimination by means of a laser beam. 





stomach cancer 
The stomach cancer originates in this important organ of our body, affecting mainly its walls and its coverings, the incidence of this particular type of cancer occurs in patients aged between 45 and 55 years, and although those cases that are reported are in great decline is now one of the most popular. Probable causes of the formation of this tumor are feeding, if high in fat, smoked foods, salt and too many starches, family predisposition and the presence of a particular virus that originates ulcers and can cause serious damage to the stomach. Different types of stomach cancer, the cancerous training can in fact occur in the intestine and in this case mostly affects men, stomach cancer of the diffuse type, which affects both men and women and attacks the gastric mucosa, the tumor type of early gastric cancer, which affects only the most superficial parts of the stomach, such as the mucosa and submucosa and finally the tumor Krukengerg. Symptoms of this cancer can often be confused with that of gastritis and ulcers and it is therefore necessary to have a gastroscopy for diagnosis, and important effects that constitute themselves as an alarm bell are strong weight loss, difficulties in large quantities of food and vomiting with blood. care of stomach cancer includes surgical treatment through which the interior can be removed stomach, with the resulting change of life style for the patient who must feed in liquid form, or with the removal of a part of the organ, on the basis the extension of the tumor. Also chemotherapy is constituted as a cure effective for this type of tumor, can be used if there are metastases spread on the body and after surgery. 







CANCER LIVER 
The liver cancer is one of the least common and its incidence varies greatly depending on geographic areas that are taken into account; liver cancer affects individuals also apparently not at risk, but there are several factors that may favor the onset. liver cancer, which is one of the most important and significant organs of our body, can be caused by a pre-existing cirrhosis, a disease that significantly impairs the body and gives rise to scar tissue, infections, such as hepatitis and mostly familiar, or if the tumor if the tumor hit a member of his family, training cancer that affects the liver binds also to age and sex, often in fact affected patients are men over the age of 60 years. Diagnosis of this particular cancer is through some tests such as tac, ultrasound, angiogram, blood tests, MRI and biopsy, after which the doctor will determine the degree of spread of tumor formation and the care to which subject the patient. Whether the cancer that afflicts the patient is located, you can resorting to surgery and following the removal of the mass; if the cancer is not operable we can resort to other therapy, such as the thermal ablation, treatment for which, through a probe that emits radio waves that generate heat are eliminated diseased cells, injections of ethanol, which consist in inserting this particular substance in the liver by killing the cancerous cells, chirochirurgia, chemoembolization, which includes a long permanence of chemotherapeutic drugs in the liver and finally the transplantation of the liver. 




brain tumor 

The tumor of the brain is divided into two categories: benign brain tumors, which are formed by cells of cancerous type, this type of tumor is well-localized and does not attack the neighboring tissues, malignant tumors are formed by cancer cells, their growth is very rapid and can reach the other tissues. Factors that can determine the presence of cancer of the brain are not yet very clear, several clinical trials are in fact still trying to find out why, it was decided, however, that a higher incidence of this form of cancer occurs in subjects used in refineries, in the rubber, the embalmers, in the pharmaceutical industry and after exposure to specific viruses. brain tumors may also be divided into primary tumors, whether they originate from the cells of the brain and secondary if the cancer has spread to the brain through metastasis, in this second case, the initial tumor was originated in another organ and the brain are visible diseased cells that do not belong. Symptoms that may be a wake-up call and suggest a tumor the brain can be: strong, but the head which begins from the morning, sleepiness, nausea, changes in behavior and personality, epilepsy, unusual eye movements, difficulty in movement and language. Investigations which the patient may be subjected can be Tac, MRI, angiogram, myelogram, which consists of an x-ray of the spine to detect a tumor in the spinal cord and an X-ray of the skull to determine if the cancer has changed the bones of the head. therapeutic options which the patient , according to the degree of spread of the cancer may be subjected are: surgery, with the total removal, if the tumor does not damage vital organs, partial otherwise and subsequently the part that remains will be radiated, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Brain tumors may also be divided into primary tumors, whether they originate from cells of the brain and secondary if the cancer has spread to the brain through metastases; in this second case the initial tumor was originated in another organ and within the brain are visible diseased cells that do not belong. Symptoms that may be a wake-up call and suggest a brain tumor can be: strong, but the head which begins from the morning, sleepiness, nausea, changes in behavior and personality , epileptic seizures, unusual eye movements, difficulty in movement and language. Investigations which the patient may be subjected can be Tac, MRI, angiogram, myelogram, which consists of an x-ray of the spine to detect a tumor in the spinal cord and an X-ray of the skull to determine if the cancer has changed the bones of the head. therapeutic options the patient, according to the degree of spread of the tumor may be submitted are: surgery, with complete removal, if the tumor not damage vital organs, partial if not, then the remaining part will be radiated, radiation, and chemotherapy. Brain tumors may also be divided into primary tumors, whether they originate from cells of the brain and secondary if the cancer has spread to the brain through metastases; in this second case the initial tumor was originated in another organ and within the brain are visible diseased cells that do not belong. Symptoms that may be a wake-up call and suggest a brain tumor can be: strong, but the head which begins from the morning, sleepiness, nausea, changes in behavior and personality , epileptic seizures, unusual eye movements, difficulty in movement and language. Investigations which the patient may be subjected can be Tac, MRI, angiogram, myelogram, which consists of an x-ray of the spine to detect a tumor in the spinal cord and an X-ray of the skull to determine if the cancer has changed the bones of the head. therapeutic options the patient, according to the degree of spread of the tumor may be submitted are: surgery, with complete removal, if the tumor not damage vital organs, partial if not, then the remaining part will be radiated, radiation, and chemotherapy. 









CANCER SKIN 
The skin cancers affect our epithelial tissues more or less common, this particular form of cancer can be determined by a strong increase in the production of melanocytes and cells of the epithelium. Factors that can lead to cancerous manifestations of this type are the bad exposure to sunlight, the familial predisposition, the presence of numerous freckles and in degrees of variable size and color; the skin cancer also has a higher incidence in patients with skin, eyes and pale hair during sun exposure are more likely to get burned. Symptoms that may lead to a diagnosis of skin cancer concern the characteristics of which are located in Body: increase of the shape, contours that are not well-defined, color that varies over time, assuming different tones simultaneously, asymmetrical shape. Subsequent investigation by the treating physician, to make sure of the presence of a form cancerous epithelial level may be carried out only by observation of the neo and a subsequent biopsy, with which will be charged to a small portion of tissue that will be subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. cancer is diagnosed that may occur in four different stages, this classification concerns the severity of tumor formation and whether and how the latter to reach the lymph nodes and metastases created in the rest of the body.care of skin cancer involves the removal of the cancer when it is localized and subsequent topical application of drugs for chemotherapy for melanoma is used surgery, which may also include the removal of some lymph nodes which may contain tumor cells. 




Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common among women in our country and are currently several cases that are diagnosed, studies on Italian women show how breast cancer affects most of the women in the north than the south, we come to the conclusion that the lifestyle, nutrition, the age at which they were first pregnancy, radiation exposure, family history and age significantly affect the occurrence of this disease. Today all breast cancer has a high probability of healing, established between 70 and 80%, a measure significantly higher than that of recent years; the high percentage of healing is due to early diagnoses that are made ​​through the use of modern equipment of the highest quality. plays an important role in the diagnosis of breast cancer is done by the woman herself, it is important that it is done often car palpation, to verify a possible presence of nodules, in this way, in fact, the doctor will have the opportunity to perform a thorough examination with ultrasound to locate the problem. care of breast cancer today is far less invasive than in previous decades, in fact, the first intervention involved the removal of the diseased breast and a powerful radiation of chemotherapy in some cases led to the paralysis of the arm, currently the surgery has been greatly improved and thanks to the branch of plastic surgery offers women a chance at a normal life. 





Colon cancer
Colon cancer, a disease that affects the intestinal tract, is one of the most common diseases and constitutes itself as the second leading cause of cancer death after tumor formation that affect the breast, lung and for women and men. Factors that may intervene in the formation of this tumor may be the ' power, if it consists of high-fat animal type, cholesterol, high alcohol intake, the presence of colorectal polyps and inheritance. The initial disturbances that may occur to the patient and that could be a wake-up call can be listed as follows: weight loss, fatigue, anemia, abdominal pain and blood in the stool.Colon cancer in severe cases and in older people can be treated successfully by surgery, an operation that involves the removal of part of ' intestine and the presence of a bag on the abdomen, this type of intervention is called ostomy; currently, however, the medicine is making great strides and, thanks to the use of radiotherapy as preparation for surgery, the operations are able to establish itself as conservative, greatly improving the life of the patient. Other forms of treatment for colon cancer are chemotherapy, which can be performed before or after surgery, or radiotherapy, however, that it is effective only on tumors of the rectum. 
Colon cancer, a disease that affects the intestinal tract, is one of the most common diseases and constitutes itself as the second leading cause of cancer death after tumor formation that affect the breast, lung and for women and men. Factors that may intervene in the formation of this tumor may be the ' power, if it consists of high-fat animal type, cholesterol, high alcohol intake, the presence of colorectal polyps and inheritance. The initial disturbances that may occur to the patient and that could be a wake-up call can be listed as follows: weight loss, fatigue, anemia, abdominal pain and blood in the stool.Colon cancer in severe cases and in older people can be treated successfully by surgery, an operation that involves the removal of part of ' intestine and the presence of a bag on the abdomen, this type of intervention is called ostomy; currently, however, the medicine is making great strides and, thanks to the use of radiotherapy as preparation for surgery, the operations are able to establish itself as conservative, greatly improving the life of the patient. Other forms of treatment for colon cancer are chemotherapy, which can be performed before or after surgery, or radiotherapy, however, that it is effective only on tumors of the rectum. 



what is cancer?

The cell is the building block of the body. In the case of cancer, there is an uncontrolled growth of cells. This results in a tumor, called a tumor called. Such a tumor is the body can no longer control it.
Malignant tumors include the property that they can spread to other places in the body. This behavior is called the spread of the tumor, or in medical jargon: metastasis. These metastases often cause major problems in the (treatment) patient with a tumor.Some malignant tumors do not sow or very late in the disease process, but may be due to their size or their tendency to grow into the surrounding healthy tissue do much damage.
Tumors that do not metastasize and not in their environment ingrowth, as  benign seen. Unfortunately, this does not mean than benign tumors can give no problem. A benign tumor on a nasty place can sometimes be more hassle than a malignant tumor in a convenient place .




Sunday, January 6, 2013

symptoms of tuberculosis

There are four types of tuberculosis which have different symptoms
  • pulmonary tuberculosis
  • extrapulmonary tuberculosis
  • pleural tuberculosis
  • lymph node tuberculosis 
 Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common manifestation of the disease. The transmission takes place through the air, via aerosols expelled by coughing, sneezing or by the own speech. It is estimated that an infected person, if not treated, can contaminate other 15 in an interval of one year.According to statistics, of these fifteen, only one or two symptoms develop. Attention: only symptomatic cases are capable of transmitting the disease. If you came in contact with the bacillus, but did not develop disease, there is no risk of transmission of bacteria to others.The typical picture of pulmonary tuberculosis is fever with night sweats and chills, chest pain, coughing, at times with streaks of blood, loss of appetite, sluggishness, and weight loss that reaches 10 or 15 kg in a few weeks. Being also a lung infection, the picture may remind us of pneumonia. However, while pneumonia is a more acute disease, which develops in hours / days, tuberculosis is slower, evolving in weeks. Some TB patients seek care only two months after the onset of symptoms. It should always think of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with pneumonia dragged box that do not improve with antibiotics common.

File:Pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms.svg

Symptoms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis TB in other organs often causes weight loss, fever, night sweats , prostration, loss of appetite. The difference is that no respiratory symptoms such as coughing, but specific symptoms of the condition of each organ.
 

Symptoms of pleural tuberculosis extrapulmonary TB is more common pleural tuberculosis, which, as the name says, affects the pleura, the lung lining. The most common symptoms (in addition to those described above) are unilateral chest pain and shortness of breath caused by the appearance of pleural effusion, better known as water in the pleura
.

Symptoms of lymph node tuberculosis Tuberculosis is a common node in the seropositive patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The box is typically increased lymph nodes in the neck region.At first, the nodes are slow growing and are painless, then increase in volume and tend to clump together, which can create fistulas (communications) to the skin.


Saturday, January 5, 2013

what is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis (BK), named after the doctor who discovered it in 1882, Robert Koch.


Koch's bacillus or BK is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis infects the respiratory predilection: pulmonary tuberculosis represents a little more than 70% of TB cases.
The disease can affect all organs. The main locations are described extra-pulmonary lymph nodes, urogenital, musculoskeletal and cerebrospinal meningitis.
This infection is considered a public health priority throughout the world, especially as the number of cases resistant to treatment increases concern.
Depending on the number of drugs that resists BK, is called multidrug resistance (resistance to at least two major antituberculous antibiotics) or highly resistant (resistant to virtually all TB). 
World Day of fight against tuberculosis, held on 24 March each year, is an opportunity to take stock of the situation of the disease in the world and progress in its management.



Site Search