Showing posts with label Mesothelioma. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mesothelioma. Show all posts

Sunday, January 22, 2012

mesothelioma


What is Mesothelioma?
 Mesothelioma (or specifically, malignant mesothelioma) Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of cells lining the body's internal organs, known as the mesothelium. In other words Mesothelioma is a tumour of the mesothelium. This is the thin membrane that lines the chest and abdomen (tummy) and surrounds the organs in these areas.

The most common anatomical site for the development of mesothelioma is the pleura Mesothelioma Cancer
Image courtesy of the Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance.
(the outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but it can also arise in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), and the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart), or the tunica vaginalis (a sac that surrounds the testis).
 Most people who develop mesothelioma   have worked in jobs where they inhaled asbestost(a substance that does not burn easily that was used in building materials in the past. It is now known to cause cancer and is no longer used), or were exposed to asbestos dust and fibers in other ways Some people who were exposed to asbestos have collected damages for asbestos-related disease, including mesothelioma.
Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, treatment for mesothelioma is often focused on keeping you as comfortable as possible.

mesothelioma lawyer:
As i explain above Asbestos exposure has been conclusively linked to mesothelioma and other fatal diseases .For 100 years, asbestos was one of the most commonly used materials in industries such as construction, shipbuilding and manufacturing.The disease of mesothelioma cancer can drastically change your finances.The biggest expense coming your way will be a share of medical bills. Even with good medical insurance, some expenses will not be covered. If you have an asbestos-induced disease,seriously consider contacting a qualified mesothelioma lawyer immediately. These types of cases are time sensitive, and only a lawyer trained in asbestos litigation should help you decide if and when to pursue a lawsuit against a company who may be responsible for exposing you to asbestos. Each state limits the time you have to file a lawsuit after you diagnosed with mesothelioma cancer. A mesothelioma lawyer can help you file your claim before the statute of limitations expires.In a mesothelioma lawsuit, the attorney will deal with actual filing of the case and then all aspects of it after that.

Symptoms of Mesothelioma:

  •  shortness of breath             
  • heavy feeling in the chest area
  •       
these two symptoms is caused by fluid build up in the lungs. These two symptoms should be taken seriously 89.9% of all patients will notice these two symptoms. However, because the symptoms do not seem serious many choose not to seek out medical care. Some symptoms common with pleural mesothelioma include back, chest or side pain, difficulty swallowing, cough, fatigue and weight loss. Peritoneal mesothelioma is often is often accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, back pain, anemia and bowel obstruction.


Types of Mesothelioma:

There are three main types of Mesothelioma.

  • Pleural mesothelioma
  • Peritoneal mesothelioma
  • Pericardial mesothelioma
Pleural mesothelioma:
The pleura is the outer lining of the lung. It has two layers; the inner (visceral) layer, which is next to the lung, and the outer (parietal) layer, which lines the chest wall. The two layers of the pleura are usually in contact and slide over each other as we breathe. The layers produce fluid, which allows them to move smoothly over each other.
When mesothelioma develops in the pleura (pleural mesothelioma), the delicate linings thicken and may press inwards on the lung. Fluid may also collect between the two layers of the pleura: this is known as a pleural effusion. Around 3 out of 4 of cases of mesothelioma develop in the pleura.
Peritoneal mesothelioma:
The outer lining of the abdomen is known as the peritoneum. It also has two layers: the inner (visceral) layer, which is next to the abdominal organs, and the outer (parietal) layer, which lines the abdominal wall. Mesothelioma in the peritoneum is called peritoneal mesothelioma. It causes thickening of the linings surrounding the abdominal organs and a collection of fluid in the abdomen. The collection of fluid is called ascites and causes swelling of the abdomen. Around 1 in 4 cases of mesothelioma develop in the peritoneum.

Pericardial mesothelioma:
Pericardial mesothelioma is the rarest form of the three main forms of mesothelioma, affecting the protective layer covering the heart.The membrane has two layers: an outer layer called the parietal layer, heart sac or theca cordis, and an inner layer known as the visceral layer or epicardium. Exposure to asbestos is the main cause of this condition. It is not clearly understood how these tiny fibers make their way to the pericardium.

Diagnosis:
Mesothelioma is difficult for doctors to diagnose because it can be easily confused with other diseases. Even after a cancer diagnosis has been recognized, mesothelioma looks similar to other types of cancer in diagnostic tests.
Diagnosis begins with a review of the patient's medical history. A history of exposure to asbestos may increase clinical suspicion for mesothelioma. A physical examination is performed, followed by chest X-ray often lung function tests. he X-ray may reveal pleural thickening commonly seen after asbestos exposure and increases suspicion of mesothelioma. A CT (or CAT) scan or an MRI is usually performed. If a large amount of fluid is present, abnormal cells may be detected by cytopathology if this fluid is aspirated with a syringe. For pleural fluid, this is done by thoracentesis or tube thoracostomy (chest tube); for ascites, with paracentesis or ascitic drain; and for pericardial effusion with pericardiocentesis. While absence of malignant cells on cytology does not completely exclude mesothelioma, it makes it much more unlikely, especially if an alternative diagnosis can be made (e.g. tuberculosis , heart failure ). Using conventional cytology diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is difficult, but immunocytochemistry has greatly enhanced the accuracy of cytology.


main treatments types:
  • Surgery
  • chemotherapy
  • radiation

Surgery:

Surgery, by itself, has proved disappointing. In one large series, the median survival with surgery (including extrapleural pneumonectomy) was only 11.7 months. However, research indicates varied success when used in combination with radiation and chemotherapy (Duke, 2008). (For more information on multimodality therapy with surgery, see below). A pleurectomy/decortication is the most common surgery, in which the lining of the chest is removed. Less common is an extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung, lining of the inside of the chest, the hemi-diaphragm and the pericardium are removed.

Chemotherapy:

Chemotherapy is the only treatment for mesothelioma that has been proven to improve survival in randomised and controlled trials. The landmark study published in 2003 by Vogelzang and colleagues compared cisplatin chemotherapy alone with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) chemotherapy in patients who had not received chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma previously and were not candidates for more aggressive "curative" surgery.

Radiation:

For patients with localized disease, and who can tolerate a radical surgery, radiation is often given post-operatively as a consolidative treatment. The entire hemi-thorax is treated with radiation therapy, often given simultaneously with chemotherapy. Delivering radiation and chemotherapy after a radical surgery has led to extended life expectancy in selected patient populations with some patients surviving more than 5 years. As part of a curative approach to mesothelioma, radiotherapy is also commonly applied to the sites of chest drain insertion, in order to prevent growth of the tumor along the track in the chest wall.
Although mesothelioma is generally resistant to curative treatment with radiotherapy alone, palliative treatment regimens are sometimes used to relieve symptoms arising from tumor growth, such as obstruction of a major blood vessel. Radiation therapy when given alone with curative intent has never been shown to improve survival from mesothelioma. The necessary radiation dose to treat mesothelioma that has not been surgically removed would be very toxic.




Wednesday, January 11, 2012

mesothelioma treatment


Cancer treatment usually focuses upon destroying malignant cells and preserving healthy ones. This can be accomplished in a number of ways. At the present, patients will typically utilize three primary mechanisms for mesothelioma treatment. Either surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, or some combination of the three are considered the most effective for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. What course of treatment is recommended will largely depend on these issues.
Once a patient is diagnosed with mesothelioma, an oncologist can go ahead and plan an appropriate path of treatment for the individual. Since every person and their cancer is unique, a tailored form of treatment is necessary to ensure the best prognosis.
There are a number of different types of treatment available for this disease. Among the curative options that are available are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Many patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma are given a combination of the three, in what is called a multimodal approach.

 By combining more than one of these rigorous treatments, it is possible to approach a solution to the cancer from various angles.In addition to these options, there are also some more experimental procedures. Among these options are photodynamic therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, hormonal therapy, anti-angiogenesis therapy and ozone therapy.  Unfortunately, these options are still in the experimental phase, with little knowledge as to their effectiveness. For this reason they are typically only available to patients as part of a clinical trial. Patients who agree to take part in a clinical trial are not only exposing themselves to treatments that may be beneficial; they are also providing researchers with  the information that they need to develop new treatments and possibly cures for people who are suffering from mesothelioma in the present and future.


Main Treatment Types

Surgery:
There are different forms of mesothelioma surgery and some are proposed as a curative measure, while others are designed to relieve symptoms of the disease that can be quite debilitating and interfere with the patient's quality of life.
Ideally, candidates for these surgeries will be in the early stages of the disease where the tumor is still fairly localized and metastasis has not occurred. In addition, the patient will need to be in overall good health and free of other medical issues that can complicate these procedures and lengthen the recovery period. Extant medical issues - like heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes - are often an issue with older mesothelioma patients, further limiting treatment options and making aggressive surgical procedures a less favorable choice
However,


Curative surgery
curative surgery is a major operation - and, as the name suggests, possibly life-changing. But not everybody who has mesothelioma qualifies for such surgery. Patients who want to consider this surgery generally must have good health on their side.Ideally, candidates for these surgeries will be in the early stages of the disease where the tumor is still fairly localized and metastasis has not occurred. Doctors want to be sure that this kind of patient can withstand the rigors of a difficult surgery and arduous rehabilitation.the patient will need to be in overall good health and free of other medical issues that can complicate these procedures and lengthen the recovery period

Palliative Surgeries:

Palliative surgery for mesothelioma patients may involve the removal of cancerous tissue or the drainage of excess fluid to provide relief from symptoms and alleviate pain. While palliative surgery does not offer a cure, such treatment has improved quality of life and prolonged survival.

Pleurodesis

Pleurodesis is a palliative treatment option for those coping with pleural mesothelioma. This procedure is performed when pleural effusion is present. Pleural effusion is the buildup of fluid in the lungs, which can cause considerable pain and breathing difficulties.

Thoracotomy

Thoracotomy is a generic term that refers to lung surgery and the procedure can be performed on patients with pleural mesothelioma. There are three main types of thoracotomy procedures, including wedge resection, lobectomy and pneumonectomy. In cases where only small, localized tumors are present, a wedge resection may be performed to remove the tumor

Pleurocentesis

This procedure is used to address pleural effusion, the build-up of fluid in the pleural area surrounding the lungs. The fluid can make it very painful and difficult for a mesothelioma patient to breathe. The procedure is performed in an outpatient area by means of a long, thin needle that is inserted into the pleural space to withdraw fluid. The patient may return home a few hours after the procedure is complete and when the doctor is satisfied that no adverse reactions will occur.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is one of the oldest forms of mesothelioma cancer treatment available,

Radiation therapy is a common cancer treatment known to reduce pain among mesothelioma patients. In fact, numerous clinical trials have shown that, on its own, Radiation Therapy does not prolong survival in most mesothelioma patients. Instead, Radiation Therapy is best used with other treatments. radiation is often used together with chemotherapy for optimal results, or may be used after a form of surgery that is designed to remove as much of the cancer as possible.
half of the patients treated with radiation experience some sort of benefit. Side effects are generally easier on a patient than side effects from chemotherapy. The therapy itself is fairly straightforward. A specialist applies ionizing radiation to cancerous tumors. The radiation damages DNA and kills tumor cells.
Radiation therapy is not used to treat all forms of mesothelioma, particularly peritoneal mesothelioma. This type of mesothelioma affects the abdominal area, which contains vital organs and a number of different tissues. Not all of these organs and tissues are afflicted with cancer, so it is not necessary to treat them. But radiation therapy can be toxic to the small intestine, liver, kidneys and other organs. This limits any potential benefit to the therapy.
There are some side effects  of Mesothelioma Radiation i.e:
  • Skin redness
  •  Esophagitis 
  • Fatigue 
  • Nausea 
  • Radiation pneumonitis 
  • Cardiac damage
  •  Radiation myelitis 
  • liver radiation damage

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is one of the most widely in use treatments for cancer of all types. Literally meaning "chemical therapy", it was developed in the 1940s. The primary objective of chemotherapy is to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It attacks cells which are rapidly dividing and interrupts the division process. While chemotherapy is meant to target cancer cells, it can harm any cells throughout the body that divide quickly. For example, hair follicles are among the fastest growing cells and therefore are easily damaged during chemotherapy treatment, leading many cancer patients to experience temporary hair loss. chemotherapy is used for mesothelioma patients in conjunction with other standard therapies such as mesothelioma radiation. It may also be used in an adjuvant capacity following surgery to eliminate any tumor that remains after the procedure is complete.
Chemotherapy, over the years, has elicited fear in many patients and it is true that this type of treatment can produce unpleasant side effects. It is important therefore, that those with mesothelioma for whom chemotherapy is recommended for palliative reasons, carefully consider these side effects before agreeing to the treatment.
The results of weighing the positive and negative factors of the treatment against the impact on overall quality of life will be different from patient to patient but is necessary to ensure that the best treatment decision is made.


Side effects of Chemotherapy

  • hair loss  
  • Anemia 
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Lower platelet count 
  • Diarrhea 
  • Rash 
  • Body aches 
  • Fatigue 
  • Fever 
  • Compromised immune system 
  • itchy in the feet and hands

 list of some of the chemotherapy drugs a mesothelioma patient may be prescribed:

  • Cisplatin 
  • gemcitabine
  •  Alitma 
  • Navelbine 
  • Onconase
  •  Carboplatin

These drugs may be used on their own or as part of a combination of drugs for more aggressive treatment. 


Multimodal Therapy



In a recent study, 46% of mesothelioma patients showed a 5-year survival rate following multimodal therapy
Multimodal therapy is one of the most common approaches to treating mesothelioma, combining two or more treatments that may be completed simultaneously or in a planned sequence. A mesothelioma specialist can most adequately analyze a patient’s condition and develop a treatment regimen that will best benefit the patient.

Saturday, December 10, 2011

Mesothelioma prognosis



What is the prognosis for mesothelioma?

Like most cancers, the prognosis for this disease often depends on how early it is diagnosed 
After being diagnosed with mesothelioma a patient’s doctor or specialist will discuss their prognosis and treatment options with them. Prognosis refers to the likely outcome of the patient’s particular case. Prognosis will also include the patient’s life expectancy


which is dependent upon several factors:
Mesothelioma Life Expectancy Prognostic Factors
  •  Cancer type
  •  Location and size of tumor
  •  Cell type
  •  Cancer stage at the time of diagnosis
  •  Patient ability to receive and respond to treatment
  •  Patient’s age and overall health
  • Amount cancer has metastasized


 Factors help determine a mesothelioma prognosis

When an individual is diagnosed with mesothelioma or any other kind of cancer, one of the first questions they will have is “How long do I have to live?” This is a scary question - and a hard one to ask - but one for which most cancer patients will eventually seek an answer.
It is often very difficult for oncologists and members of a patient’s medical team to give a definitive answer to this query. Indeed, every case is different and cancer can be an unpredictable disease. Sometimes, cases that look hopeless turn out to be not so bleak. In other cases, cancers that don’t look so bad progress quickly and result in an untimely death.
Currently, a number of different issues determine the mesothelioma patient’s prognosis. These include:

  • Type
  • Location
  • Stage of the disease 
  • Metastasis 
  • General health of the patient
  • Mesothelioma Survival rate
  • Mesothelioma Survivors
  • Mesothelioma Remission
Stage at diagnosis is the single most important factor when assessing a patient’s mesothelioma prognosis

    here is a graph to understand life expectancy in mesothelioma stages in years:
    Mesothelioma Prognosis By Stage
    Image courtesy of the Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance.


    Stage 1 mesothelioma:


    When determining the extent and nature of any kind of cancer - which in turn, plays a large part in designing an appropriate cancer treatment - oncologists use a rubric or "staging" system. This is only one of the criteria by which malignancies are classified, the first of which is determined by the location of the tumor and the third of which is determined by the cellular structure (or lack thereof).
    Staging assists the oncologist in determining how far the cancer has advanced and how treatable the patient's malignancy really is.
    Although there are three distinct staging systems currently in use, all three are based on four primary stages:
    • The tumor is confined to one organ or region and is relatively small.
    • The tumor has grown in size, and has spread to one other tissue.
    • The tumor has spread to adjacent areas.
    • The tumor has spread to distant areas of the body, or "metastasized."
    In Stage 1, mesothelioma is localized and confined to one area of the body.

    Prognosis for stage 1

    Patients have the best prognosis at Stage I because the cancer is localized. If mesothelioma is diagnosed early, patients usually will respond better to standard treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Younger patients with fewer or less severe symptoms have also been shown to have longer life expectancies.
    The stage of pleural mesothelioma in particular can be an indication of life expectancy. According to one study of 131 patients, those diagnosed during Stage I had a median survival of 35 months, as compared to the 5.9-month median survival of Stage IV patients.


    Stage 2 Mesothelioma


    A diagnosis of Stage 2 mesothelioma means the cancer has begun to spread from the original tumor site. Although still mostly localized, Stage II mesothelioma has spread to the lymph nodes and may have spread to nearby areas. This progression usually creates vague and mild symptoms, which become more apparent as the cancer continues to grow. A patient diagnosed by Stage II generally has more treatment options and a better prognosis than a patient diagnosed at a later stage.

    Prognosis for stage 2

    The prognosis of Stage II patients is generally better than average for mesothelioma. Because the cancer has not become widespread, it can still be treated effectively. This can help prolong life expectancy.
    One study found a strong correlation between pleural mesothelioma stages and life expectancy. In the study of 131 patients, patients who were diagnosed at Stage II had a median survival of 16 months. Some Stage II patients lived for years after diagnosis.

    Stage 3 Mesothelioma

    Unlike the first two stages of mesothelioma, Stage 3 is considered to be an advanced stage of cancer development – and this greatly affects treatment options. Symptoms at this stage can present frequent pain and there are only a few treatments that can provide relief. Because of the limited amount of treatments available, coupled with the fact that there is no mesothelioma cure, prognosis is not typically favorable for Stage 3 patients. Learning more about the definition, symptoms, treatment options, prognosis and resources for Stage III mesothelioma helps patients comprehend their condition and make important decisions.

    Prognosis for stage 3
    Stage III mesothelioma patients typically have a short prognosis, ranging anywhere from a few months to more than a year after diagnosis. Prognosis for Stage III cases is generally poor because there are very few treatment options available that could significantly extend life expectancy. Surgery, which can sometimes improve prognosis, is not always recommended for patients with Stage III mesothelioma because of the extent of the cancer and the difficulty of removing all the tumors.It is important to remember that each mesothelioma case is different. Only a mesothelioma specialist can provide a prognosis for each patient’s individual case.


    Stage 4 Mesothelioma

    Mesothelioma is diagnosed as one of four stages, ranging between Stage I and Stage IV. Patients who are diagnosed with Stage IV mesothelioma are in the last and most advanced stage, and consequently have less effective treatment options. By the time mesothelioma is characterized as Stage IV, tumor growth and symptoms are intensified in comparison to previous stages. This stage carries the poorest prognosis, but resources are available to help patients cope and make the best treatment decisions for their case.

    A Stage IV diagnosis is determined by the extent of how far the cancer has spread from its original location. If mesothelioma tumors initiated in the pleura have affected the chest wall, diaphragm, lining of the heart, or other areas, a Stage IV diagnosis will be made. With this type of mesothelioma, doctors may avoid using potentially curative treatments such as surgery because the extent of the cancer and the risks involved.
    If you have questions about Stage IV mesothelioma or need help finding financial assistance to pay for medical bills, fill out the form below. You'll receive a complimentary packet with important information for mesothelioma patients and their families.

    Prognosis for stage 4
    Patients with Stage IV mesothelioma generally have a poor prognosis because the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, making treatment options limited and less effective. Described as “distant metastasis” in staging systems, mesothelioma will typically spread throughout the abdomen, into lymph nodes, and sometimes into the heart sac or other organs. Patients with Stage IV mesothelioma have an average life expectancy of six and a half months after a diagnosis is made.

    Saturday, November 26, 2011

    Epithelioid Mesothelioma


    Epithelioid mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma.  epithelioid mesothelioma, is a type of cancer that occurs in the mesothelium, which is an epithelium (protective layer of tissue) that surrounds certain organs.   If epithelial mesothelioma cells are present, you may have a better prognosis and be more responsive to treatment in comparison to patients with other cell types. Understanding the characteristics of epithelioid mesothelioma, how it is diagnosed, Because malignant epithelial mesothelioma accounts for 50 to 70 percent of all cases. epithelioid Mesothelioma affects epithelial cells, which are found in the epithelium—a tissue lining found throughout the human body in areas that act as a barrier or separation between different body environments.
    The individual cells are relatively uniform in shape with a unique tubular design and a cell nucleus that, when viewed under high magnification, is visibly distinguishable from other cell nuclei. However, other types of cancer can take a similar form, and if these cancers appear in the mesothelium, they can be puzzled with epithelioid mesothelioma. Epithelial cells perform different functions according to their location within the body, including protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion and sensory reception.

    Diagnosis of Epithelioid Mesothelioma

    The process for diagnosing mesothelioma includes multiple steps and usually takes from 1to 3 months after the patient’s initial consultation. Though several new diagnostic tests are currently in the experimental stage,Epithelioid mesothelioma is not easily identified through the microscopic inspection of cells. biopsy remains the only way to accurately diagnose epithelioid mesothelioma. During a biopsy, a sample of the tumor is extracted for further evaluation. Depending on the type, number, and location of the mesothelioma tumors, biopsies may be acquired through endoscopic procedures such as thorascopic surgery or they may require more extended surgical procedures including tumor removal.Biopsies offer doctors a way to examine the cells and tissue associated with the tumor. 

    Mesothelioma lawsuits
    If you or loved ones has been diagnosed with mesothelioma, asbestosis or any other asbestos related disease, you have to file a mesothelioma lawsuit or asbestos bankruptcy claim against a company who may be responsible for exposing you to asbestos because there is many expenses in your way one of the biggest expense coming your way will be a share of medical bills.Even with good medical insurance, some expenses will not be covered. 


    Epithelioid mesothelioma Treatments

    Treatment for epithelial mesothelioma is similar to treatments for other cell types. In fact, mesothelioma treatment more often depends on the stage and location of the cancer rather than the specific cell type. However, since epithelioid cells respond best to treatment, an epithelioid mesothelioma patient may be considered for a more aggressive treatment plan that patients with other cell types. Some of the most common treatments are:
    surgery

    chemotherapy

    Radiation therapy


    Types of Epithelioid mesothelioma


    Diffuse - NOS 
    Deciduoid
    Small Cell 
    Tubulopapillary
    Poorly Differentiated 
    Glandular
    Histiocytoid
    Well Differentiated Papillary 
    Adenoid cystic
    Microcystic
    Macrocystic
    Signet Ring 
    Single File
    Glomeruloid
    Small Cell
    Mucin Positive
    Gaucher Cell-Like 

     Epithelioid Mesothelioma Symptoms

    pleural effusion, or fluid surrounding the lung 
    weight loss
    abdominal pain
    bowel function problems
    chest wall pain
     weight loss
    blood in the sputum (fluid) coughed up (hemoptysis)
    shortness of breath
    fatigue or anemia
    wheezing, hoarseness, or cough



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